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Combined wind speed-direction sensor

At the AWS Askole station the CombiSD DNA022 Lsi-Lastem combined wind speed-direction sensor is mounted on a 5m pole. The CombiSD sensor includes, in a single apparatus, the both transducers for measuring wind speed and wind direction. Its use simplifies the installation and the plant design in respect of the sensors with separate measurements plus giving some other advantages being smaller, lighter and cheaper. The CombiSD DNA022: sensor has a direct signal output. Frequency (Hz) for wind speed and resistance (Ohm) for wind direction. the CombiSD has low power consumption, it can be used in systems with small energy availability. The technical characteristics are: - Principle of operation: 3 cups and vane anemometer - Speed sensor: Optoelectronic disk - Direction sensor: 2000 Ohm wire potentiometer / Positioning Hall effect sensor - Housing: Heavy gauge anodised aluminium - Shaft carriers: Low-torque stainless steel bearings - Protection (vertical position): IP65 - Mechanical mounting: On 48 50 mm diameter mast - Electrical outlet terminators: IP65 watertight connector - Weight (instrument with rotors): 950 gr. The Physical and operational specification are: - damage threshold > 75 m/s - operating temperature: -30°+70°C The speed measures are specified by: - Measurement range: 0-60 m/s (using transfer function) - Threshold: 0,21 m/s - Response time (63% at 5 m/s): 0.8 s - Distance constant (delay distance) at 5 m/s: 4 m - Resolution (integration time=1s): 0.05 m/s - Accuracy & Linearity: 0,1 m/s+1%VL (readout), if connected to LASTEM data loggers. The direction measures are specified by: - Measurement range: 0 ÷ 360 - Threshold: 0,15 m/s - Response time (at 5 m/s): 0,26 s - Delay distance (at 5 m/s): 1,32 m - Damping coefficient (VDI3786): 0,21 - Transfer function: Dir(°)= 355 x R(Ohm)/2000 - Resolution: 0,1 - Accuracy: 1% FS (Full scale) - Integral linearity: 0,5%

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Equivalent black carbon

Black carbon was measured from July 2005 till February 2007 by using a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP).

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Sulfur Exafluoride

Sulfur Hexafluoride is measured by using a GC-ECD (Agilent 6890N); separation is performed on a double column system (precolumn/backflush and analytical column, both Hayesep Q), isothemrically. Each run is 15 minute long. Each ambient air sample is bracketed with calibration runs. The working standards are based on NOAA2006 scale.

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Aerosol scattering coefficient

A M9003 integrating nephelometer (ECOTECH) measures the aerosol scattering coefficient at 525 nm since May 2007.

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Carbon monoxide

Measurements of trace gas concentration carbon monoxide (CO) by using a customized Gas Chromotograph-RGB. Measurements started on Jan 2007 with a modified version of a commercial RGD2-Trace Analytical analyser. Measurements ended on March 2010.

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Meteorological sensors

A new embedded-transportable monitoring system (SHARE-BOX), specifically designed to perform atmospheric observations in remote regions, has been deployed at Askole from 20th August to 10th November 2012. The system was equipped with an automated weather station (Vaisala WXT520).

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Carbon Monoxide

A Gas Chromatpgraph-FID (Agilent 6890N ) is used to measure carbon monoxide (CO) strating from January 2008.

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Lukla (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

To Lukla is the first of four major stations to detect climate established by the Ev-K2-CNR along the axis that runs from south to north, towards Everest. The AWS takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. The Lukla station was installed on September 2002. On 2004, the AWS has been implemented to include sensors for the determination of soil parameters (temperature, water content, thermal flux), snow level and shortwave/longwave albedo.

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Air Temperature

The station is equipped with a probe Temperature and Relative Humidity (Rotronic MP101A-T4-W4W ).

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Halogenated gases

25 Halocarbons[pptv] relevant for climate issues will be analysed in grab samples collected weekly. The following compounds are currently observed and analysed : - Halons H-1301, H-1211 - CFCs: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115 - HCFCs: HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 -CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CH3CCl3,CCl4, TCE, PCE -HFCs:HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFC-125

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