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Pyranometer

At the AWS Askole station the CM6B Kipp&Zonen pyranometer is installed. It is mounted on a 2m pole. The CM6B is a first class pyranometer as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. It is suitable for the measurement of solar irradiance on a plane surface (W/m2). It incorporates a 64-thermocouple sensor, which is rotationally symmetrical, housed under K5 domes. A white screen prevents the body of the pyranometer from heating up. The pyranometer is supplied with a spirit level and screws for accurate levelling. A drying cartridge keeps the interior free from humidity. The technical characteristics are: - Spectral range 305...2800 nm (50%points) - Sensitivity 9...15µV/Wm-2 - Impedance 70...100 Ohm - Response time 1/e 5 s, 99 % 55 s - Non-linearity <1.5 % (<1000 W/m2) - Tilt error <1.5 % at 1000 W/m2 - Operating temperature -40...+90 °C - Temperature dependence of sensitivity +/- 2% (-10...+40°C) - Maximum irradiance 2000 W/m2 - Directional error <+/- 20 W/m2 at 1000 W/m2 - Weight 0.85 kg - Cable length 10

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Vaisala BAROCAP Digital Barometer PTB330

Since 2014, the Digital Barometer PTB330, by VAISALA, is installed. Vaisala BAROCAP® Digital Barometer PTB330 is a new generation barometer, designed for a wide range of high-end atmospheric pressure measurement. -Vaisala BAROCAP® sensor -Accurate measurement -Excellent long-term stability -Added reliability through redundancy -Graphical trend display with 1-year history data -Altitude corrected pressure (QFE, QNH) -For professional use in meteorology, aviation, laboratories, and demanding industrial applications

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Combined wind speed-direction sensor

At the AWS Pheriche station the CombiSD DNA022 Lsi-Lastem combined wind speed-direction sensor is mounted on a 5m pole. The CombiSD sensor includes, in a single apparatus, the both transducers for measuring wind speed and wind direction. Its use simplifies the installation and the plant design in respect of the sensors with separate measurements plus giving some other advantages being smaller, lighter and cheaper. The CombiSD DNA022: sensor has a direct signal output. Frequency (Hz) for wind speed and resistance (Ohm) for wind direction. the CombiSD has low power consumption, it can be used in systems with small energy availability. The technical characteristics are: - Principle of operation: 3 cups and vane anemometer - Speed sensor: Optoelectronic disk - Direction sensor: 2000 Ohm wire potentiometer / Positioning Hall effect sensor - Housing: Heavy gauge anodised aluminium - Shaft carriers: Low-torque stainless steel bearings - Protection (vertical position): IP65 - Mechanical mounting: On 48 50 mm diameter mast - Electrical outlet terminators: IP65 watertight connector - Weight (instrument with rotors): 950 gr. The Physical and operational specification are: - damage threshold > 75 m/s - operating temperature: -30°+70°C The speed measures are specified by: - Measurement range: 0-60 m/s (using transfer function) - Threshold: 0,21 m/s - Response time (63% at 5 m/s): 0.8 s - Distance constant (delay distance) at 5 m/s: 4 m - Resolution (integration time=1s): 0.05 m/s - Accuracy & Linearity: 0,1 m/s+1%VL (readout), if connected to LASTEM data loggers. The direction measures are specified by: - Measurement range: 0 ÷ 360 - Threshold: 0,15 m/s - Response time (at 5 m/s): 0,26 s - Delay distance (at 5 m/s): 1,32 m - Damping coefficient (VDI3786): 0,21 - Transfer function: Dir(°)= 355 x R(Ohm)/2000 - Resolution: 0,1 - Accuracy: 1% FS (Full scale) - Integral linearity: 0,5%

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Sun Photometer

At the end of March 2006 a Cimel CE-318 sunphotometer was installed at the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P) within the framework of the Aerosol Robotic Network, AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, EvK2-CNR site). It provides a characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties of the air column above the station.

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Gas Chromotograph-ECD

Sulfur Hexafluoride is measured by using a GC-ECD (Agilent 6890N); separation is performed on a double column system (precolumn/backflush and analytical column, both Hayesep Q), isothemrically.

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Aerosol size distribution (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer)

Measurements of aerosol-size distributions at the NCO-P (or Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid) site were continuously performed by using the scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) technique.

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