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Meteorological parameters

The Vaisala WXT520 multi-parameter weather transmitter installed at Nepal Climate Observatory -Pyramid is a compact and lightweight multi-sensor instrument that measures the most essential weather parameters. The meteorological parameters measured are air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation.

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Aerosol size distribution (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer)

Measurements of aerosol-size distributions at the NCO-P (or Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid) site were continuously performed by using the scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) technique.

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Pyranometer

At the AWS Askole station the CM6B Kipp&Zonen pyranometer is installed. It is mounted on a 2m pole. The CM6B is a first class pyranometer as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. It is suitable for the measurement of solar irradiance on a plane surface (W/m2). It incorporates a 64-thermocouple sensor, which is rotationally symmetrical, housed under K5 domes. A white screen prevents the body of the pyranometer from heating up. The pyranometer is supplied with a spirit level and screws for accurate levelling. A drying cartridge keeps the interior free from humidity. The technical characteristics are: - Spectral range 305...2800 nm (50%points) - Sensitivity 9...15µV/Wm-2 - Impedance 70...100 Ohm - Response time 1/e 5 s, 99 % 55 s - Non-linearity <1.5 % (<1000 W/m2) - Tilt error <1.5 % at 1000 W/m2 - Operating temperature -40...+90 °C - Temperature dependence of sensitivity +/- 2% (-10...+40°C) - Maximum irradiance 2000 W/m2 - Directional error <+/- 20 W/m2 at 1000 W/m2 - Weight 0.85 kg - Cable length 10

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Halogenated gases

Halogenated gases measurements are performed by a Gas Chromotograph -MS (Agilent 6890/5973) preconcentration/ thermal-desorption(Unity-Markes). Measurement of greenhouses gas concentration (CFC, HFC, HCFC,...). Air samples at the NCO-P are collected by drawing ambient air into 1-liter stainless steel flasks by means of an ultra clean air pump, over a period of about 10 min, reaching the pressure 1.8×105 Pa. Air aliquots are then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890–5973 GC-MS) equipped with an auto-sampling/pre-concentration unit (Markes International UNITY-Air Server).

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Barometer

At the AWS Askole station the CX115P Lsi-Lastem barometer is connected with measurement system (recorder, data logger) that accepts analog signals. The barometer functions according to the piezometric principle: a resistive film is deposited on a slice of silica with a bridge form; as the pressure changes, the slice will deform and consequently changes the system's resistance. The CX115P model mounts a special thermal compensation system that significantly reduces drift. Specific characteristic: Range: 800 ž 1100 hPa (1 hPa=1 mBar) Sea level correction range: -300...+2000 mt. Thermal drift: 0,01 hPa/°C (-10..+60°C) Linearity&Hysteresis: < 0,3% of the range Overload: max. 2 Pa Load resi stance: Current output types: <500W. Power consumption: 3 W Response time (T90): 1 ms Environmental limits: -25 .. +60°C Output connections: terminals Weight: 650 gr. Housing case material: Plastic Protection: IP40 Downward cable outlet

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Electric rain gauge

At the AWS Askole station the DQA035 Lsi-Lastem rain gauge is mounted on a 1,5 m mast. This model of Rain gauge has a 1.000 cmq collector area. The measurement device is composed of a collector cone and a double chamber bascule connected to a magnete that operates one (optional two) reed switch, which generates impulses that can be counted by external meters: each impulse is equal to 0.2 mm of rain (optional from 0.1 to 0.5 mm). The mechanical and electrical specifications are: - Collector surface area: 1000 cmq - Collector area diameter: 420 mm - Measurements range: 180 mm/hr - Resolution: o,2 mm/imp. (opt. 0,1; 0,3; 0,4; 0,5; mm/imp.) - Accuracy: 0-1 mm/min: 1% 1-3 mm/min: 2% 3-5 mm/min: 4% 5-10 mm/min: 8% - Contact: 1 reed (opt. N.2 reed) 0,5 A/24V non inductive - Pulse duration: 100 msec.± 5 - Collector cone material: Brass - External housing material: Inox AISI30 - Tipping bucket material: Alluminium - Cable: 10 m - Weight: 6,3 kg - Power supply: /thermocover 100 W, 24 Vca/Va

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Aerosol size distribution (Optical particle counter)

Optical Particle Counter - Dust Monitor 190 GRIMM determining size distribution for particles with diameters ranging between 25 nm and 32 µm.

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