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Halogenated gases

Halogenated gases measurements are performed by a Gas Chromotograph -MS (Agilent 6890/5973) preconcentration/ thermal-desorption(Unity-Markes). Measurement of greenhouses gas concentration (CFC, HFC, HCFC,...). Air samples at the NCO-P are collected by drawing ambient air into 1-liter stainless steel flasks by means of an ultra clean air pump, over a period of about 10 min, reaching the pressure 1.8×105 Pa. Air aliquots are then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890–5973 GC-MS) equipped with an auto-sampling/pre-concentration unit (Markes International UNITY-Air Server).

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CNR 1 net radiometer

The CNR1 net radiometer by Kipp & Zonen is for applications requiring research-grade performance. The radiometer measures the energy balance between incoming short-wave and long-wave IR radiation versus surface-reflected short-wave and outgoing long-wave IR radiation. The CNR1 consists of a pyranometer and pyrgeometer pair that faces upward and a complementary pair that faces downward. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers measure short-wave and far infrared radiation, respectively. The CNR1 also includes an RTD to measure the radiometer’s internal temperature and a heater that can be used to prevent condensation. CNR1 Specifications Sensors: Kipp & Zonen’s CM3 ISO-class, thermopile pyranometer, CG3 pyrgeometer, PT100 RTD Spectral Response Pyranometer: 305 to 2800 nm Pyrgeometer: 5000 to 50,000 nm Response Time: 18 seconds Sensitivity Range: 7 to 15 µV W-1 m2 Output Range Pyranometer: 0 to 25 mV Pyrgeometer: ±5 mV Expected Accuracy for Daily Totals: ±10% Directional Error: <25 W m-2 (pyranometer) Heating Resistor: 24 Ohms, 6 W at 12 Vdc CE Compliance: CE compliant under the European Union’s EMC directive

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Electric rain gauge

At the AWS Askole station the DQA035 Lsi-Lastem rain gauge is mounted on a 1,5 m mast. This model of Rain gauge has a 1.000 cmq collector area. The measurement device is composed of a collector cone and a double chamber bascule connected to a magnete that operates one (optional two) reed switch, which generates impulses that can be counted by external meters: each impulse is equal to 0.2 mm of rain (optional from 0.1 to 0.5 mm). The mechanical and electrical specifications are: - Collector surface area: 1000 cmq - Collector area diameter: 420 mm - Measurements range: 180 mm/hr - Resolution: o,2 mm/imp. (opt. 0,1; 0,3; 0,4; 0,5; mm/imp.) - Accuracy: 0-1 mm/min: 1% 1-3 mm/min: 2% 3-5 mm/min: 4% 5-10 mm/min: 8% - Contact: 1 reed (opt. N.2 reed) 0,5 A/24V non inductive - Pulse duration: 100 msec.± 5 - Collector cone material: Brass - External housing material: Inox AISI30 - Tipping bucket material: Alluminium - Cable: 10 m - Weight: 6,3 kg - Power supply: /thermocover 100 W, 24 Vca/Va

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Pyranometer

At the AWS Askole station the CM6B Kipp&Zonen pyranometer is installed. It is mounted on a 2m pole. The CM6B is a first class pyranometer as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. It is suitable for the measurement of solar irradiance on a plane surface (W/m2). It incorporates a 64-thermocouple sensor, which is rotationally symmetrical, housed under K5 domes. A white screen prevents the body of the pyranometer from heating up. The pyranometer is supplied with a spirit level and screws for accurate levelling. A drying cartridge keeps the interior free from humidity. The technical characteristics are: - Spectral range 305...2800 nm (50%points) - Sensitivity 9...15µV/Wm-2 - Impedance 70...100 Ohm - Response time 1/e 5 s, 99 % 55 s - Non-linearity <1.5 % (<1000 W/m2) - Tilt error <1.5 % at 1000 W/m2 - Operating temperature -40...+90 °C - Temperature dependence of sensitivity +/- 2% (-10...+40°C) - Maximum irradiance 2000 W/m2 - Directional error <+/- 20 W/m2 at 1000 W/m2 - Weight 0.85 kg - Cable length 10

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Gas Chromotograph-ECD

Sulfur Hexafluoride is measured by using a GC-ECD (Agilent 6890N); separation is performed on a double column system (precolumn/backflush and analytical column, both Hayesep Q), isothemrically.

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Thermohygrometer

At the Askole AWS the DMA572 Lsi-Lastem Thermohygrometer is mounted on a 2 m pole. It is a probe for measuring air temperature and air relative humidity with replaceable sensitive element for simplify calibration and maintenance. LSI-Lastem supplies a precise and reliable set of probes, suitable for a continuous measurement in severe environments, in presence of deep thermal and hygrometric ranges with high sun radiant heat. An important feature of this set of sensor is that the thermohygrometric sensitive element is easily replaceable, in order to have a simple and rapid ordinary maintenance and avoiding calibration. The Thermohygrometer has supported a considerable improvement, owing to a deep technical and styling development process: a fan ensures a continuos air change around the sensor in order to eliminate temperature fault caused by radiant heat. For temperature: Range -30.+70°C Sensitive element Pt100 1/3 DIN-B Accuracy ± 0,1°C (0°C) Hysteresis&Repeatability na Resolution 0,025°C Long term stability -0.04% (after 5 years at 200°C) Calibration uncertainty 0,1°C Response time (T63) Wind speed 0,3-0,5 m/s: 80sec Radiation shield efficiency with respect to forced ventilation sensor (wind 0,5m/s, rad.800 W/m2): +0,6°C For relative humidity: Range: Nom.0..100%, Eff.10..98% Sensitive element Capacitive Accuracy 2,5% (11-90%) 0,6°C (20°C, 50%RH) Hysteresis&Repeatability 0,5% Resolution 0,2% Long term stability -2%/year (at 75%RH) n.a. Calibration uncertainty 0,1°C 1,5% na Response time (T63) Wind speed 0,3-0,5 m/s: 80sec Radiation shield efficiency with respect to forced ventilation sensor (wind 0,5m/s, rad.800 W/m2): n.a. General characteristic: Ventilation: Natural Electric output Jumper locally selectable 2 x 0-20 mA, 4-20 mA, 0-5 V, 1-5 V. 60-300 mV Output signals Output n.1: temperature. Output n.2: RH% or dew point (default RH%) Operating temperature -30°+70°C Sampling rate 1 sec. (default) PC programmable 1..300 sec. N°acquisitions for mobile average calculation: N°1 (default), PC programmable 1..20 acquisitions Load resistance (mA output): DMA570 300 Ohm

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