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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Biafo2

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GNSS Station at the Pyramid International Laboratory – Observatory (Khumbu Valley - Nepal)

In 2011, within the framework of the SHARE project a new GPS receiver Leica GRX 1200 + GNSS was installed on a hill near the Pyramid Laboratory. Coordinates: Latitude: 27°57'33.23 Longitude: 86°48'47.14 Elevation: 4994.59 (above the GRS84 Ellipsoid)

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Jula bridge

Place: Jula Country: Pakistan Position latitude 3951704 N longitude 587993 E Drainage Area (km2) : 809 Icy Area (km2): 341 Altitude (m a.s.l.): 3148

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SHARE- SERA – Smart Ecosustainable Residential Area

Several territories, e.g. high mountain areas in developing Countries, are significantly influenced by climate change, increase of human activities and tourism. Impacting fuels, together with bad daily habits and obsolete technologies, cause often high levels of indoor air pollution; this reduces the quality of life and determines a number of respiratory diseases especially in elderly people, women and children. Moreover the increase in touristic inflow contributed to a progressive deforestation, and the consequent alteration of the hydro-geological system, and to the accumulation of waste. SERA project aims at promoting useful strategies for sustainable development of high altitude territories, through an energy and environmental planning, in accordance with the Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly concerning the sustainable mountain development (UN, A/Res/62/196, 2008). For this purpose a thorough analysis has to be conducted to identify the specific features of reference context from several points of view. On this basis, two main key actions can be carried out: - Survey on possible energy efficiency measures, proposal and experimentation of technical/technological solutions, which may be integrated with the local territory, in order to meet population needs, in terms of simplicity of realization, use of local materials, environmental compatibility, exploitation of available renewable energies and indoor air quality improvement. The best solutions will be chosen on the basis of technical-economic feasibility studies and their impact during the entire life cycle. - Definition of guide lines about sustainable development of territory and active support to local Government and Authorities for adopting correct policies aimed to a low environmental impact energy planning, through a “sharing” process of scientific knowledge gained during the project. A pilot project should be implemented to test technological innovation for energy efficiency and renewable sources. This phase is extremely important for its repeatability and visibility, and could mobilize resources for further upgrade and replication in wider areas. Latest information about SERA project: Khumbu Valley was selected as reference context and a thorough analysis was conducted to identify its specific features; at the same time, a survey on efficiency solutions has been started, concerning building sector, renewable energies and distributed generation. To support the experimental development stage and the creation of a pilot repeatable project, an on-site investigation was organized in Chaurikharka village (Sagarmatha zone, Solukhumbu district, 27° 41’ 48” N, 86° 43’ 17” E, 2,660 m a.s.l.) from November 17 to December 3, 2013. The village and its inhabitants have been the focus of a cross assessment, aimed to: - Detect the presence of markers of early atherosclerosis with ultrasound and estimate the value of systolic pulmonary pressure (Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council of Italy, Pisa, Italy). - Analyse respiratory function and health, by means of spirometry and a validated questionnaire; measure the indoor carbon monoxide (Biomedical Sport Studies Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy). - Continuous indoor measurements of Black Carbon and ambient aerosol number size distribution (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council of Italy, Bologna, Italy). - Energy and structural audit, in order to get the housing main features of the village (construction types, lifestyle and customs are useful to design technological eco-sustainable solutions as well as integrated within the local context). This phase was directly on charge of Perugia University.

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APD - Ground Surface Temperatures (GST)

Ground Surface Temperature (GST) is defined as the near-surface temperature of the ground (bedrock or surficial deposits), measured in the uppermost centimeters of the ground. GST is not a direct proof of permafrost existence but a proxy for estimating potential permafrost presence or absence in the subsurface and can be used for calibrating and validating numerical models. GST has to be distinguished from the Bottom Temperature of Snow cover (BTS), which is the temperature measured at the snow/ground interface in late winter. The APD does not collect raw GST data but the Mean Annual Ground Surface Temperature (MAGST) of a certain depth.

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Basha

Place: Basha Country: Pakistan Position latitude 3956201 N longitude 535705 E Drainage Area (km2): 1495 Icy Area (km2): 563 Altitude (m a.s.l.): 2460

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Biafo 2013

Survey2013 Biafo 1 Date: 19 aprile 2013 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s: )0,589 q (m3/(s km2)): 0,0007 Date: 24 aprile 2013 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s): 0,997 q (m3/(s km2)): 0,0012 Biafo2 Date: 19 aprile 2013 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s): 0,690 q (m3/(s km2): )0,0008 Date 24 aprile 2013 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s): 0,773 q (m3/(s km2): ): 0,0009 total Date: 19 aprile 2013 Measure System:salt tracer Q (m3/s): 1,279 q (m3/(s km2)): 0,0015 Date 24 aprile 2013 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s): 1,770 q (m3/(s km2)): 0,0021

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Italy

Italy - Dosdè (2126 m)

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Dosdè

Place: Val Viola, near Federico hut Country: Italy Position latitude 46,41941 N longitude 10,19727 E elevation 2126 m.a.s.l. Datalogger Lastem E-log Sensor piezometric sensor Sensotek, 4-20 mA, 12V Power supply solar panel 5W + battery Pb 12V 5 Ah Installation date 26-07-09 Watershed area [km2] 17,12

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Biafo bridge 2012

Survey 2012 Date: 01 giugno 2012 Measure System: salt tracer Q (m3/s): 31,8 q (m3/(s km2)): 0,038

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