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Nephelometer ABS

The integrating nephelometer (model TSI 3563) is a high-sensitivity device capable of measuring the scattering properties of aerosol particles. The nephelometer measures the light scattered by the aerosol and then subtracting light scattered by the walls of the measurement chamber, light scattered by the gas, and electronic noise inherent in the detectors.

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Air temperature

At Changri Nup station a DMA 570 thermohygrometer was installed in 2010. Temperature sensitive element is a thermoresistance Pt100 type while the humidity sensitive element is a capacitive plate. The sensitive elements are protected from incident solar radiation by a double radiation shield. Sensors for temperature and relative humidity measurements with radiation shield for meteorological uses. Sensors are equipped with a microprocessor.

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Ultrasonic Anemometer WMT700

During the 2011 expedition, a prototype replaces the sensor installed during 2008 expedition. A prototype (LSI-Lastem) to support with other two sensors manufactured by VAISALA: WMT700 and WA15D7B. The WMT700 sensor is a robust and reliable ultrasonic anemometer. It measures surface wind, which is one of the key parameters for meteorology and aviation. The WMT700 series uses ultrasound to determine horizontal wind speed and direction.

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Namche (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, in the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 6 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed over the past 10 years. Namche Station is part of the station network of automated measurement stations (AWSs) that were installed in the Eastern Himalayas: the AWSs are located at different altitudes, over a stretch oriented approximately 40 km south to north. The network takes hourly measurements of seven standard parameters: temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation, total precipitation.

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Net radiation (derived)

Both in 2008 and in 2011 expedition a CM6B Kipp&Zonen radiometer was installed at South Col. The radiometer measures the energy balance between incoming short-wave and long-wave IR radiation versus surface-reflected short-wave and outgoing long-wave IR radiation.

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UV-absorption analyser

At the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid a UV-absorption analyser (Thermo TEI 49C UV analyzer) is used for measurement of surface ozone adopting the sampling procedures suggested within the GAW-WMO (GAW, 1992).

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Aerosol number concentration

PM is measured using the optical particle counter (OPC GRIMM 190), which measures the size distributions for particle with diameters greater than 0.25 up to 32µm by means of 90° laser light scattering. The Aerosol number concentration measurement is a subset of core variables that are recommended by the GAW Scientific Advisory Group on Aerosols for long-term measurements in the global network.

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Air Temperature

At the Forni AWS the DMA570 Lsi-Lastem Thermohygrometer is mounted on a 2 m pole. It is a probe for measuring air temperature and air relative humidity with replaceable sensitive element for simplify calibration and maintenance.

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Thermohygrometer

The station records continuously measurements of the seven meteorological standard parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, global solar radiation and total precipitation. A thermohygrometer DMA572 LSi-Lastem(Italy) measures : -air temperature (°C); - relative humidity(%).

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incoming and out outcoming far infrared radiation (W/m2)

On the Forni glacier takes place in 2005 the first permanent part of the Share for the quantification of energy flows and micrometeorological conditions. His study is part of the research resource cryosphere, as part of Share Stelvio: an open-air laboratory for the study of climate and environmental changes at high altitude in the Stelvio National Park. Here is located the station Share Ice "Forni 1" at 2700 meters above sea level on the surface of the tongue of glacial ablation and will be located here in 2011 the Box tool for the surveys within the research line of Air Resource Share Stelvio.

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