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Changri Nup Glacier (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. In particular, within the Ev-K2-CNR/SHARE Project on February 2010 an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) has been installed on the debris-free surface of the Changri Nup Glacier (Nepal, Himalayas) at 5,700 m asl. This AWS is acquiring meteorological data and energy fluxes on the glacier surface in order to permit the calculation of the glacier energy balance and the high resolution analysis of glacier albedo. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 58' 54.5" N - Longitude: 86° 45' 53.8" E

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file name data soil temperature

The DLA400 sensor is manufactured by LSI-Lastem (Italy) and measures up to 50 cm soil depth it can be complete with several accessories: DLA400 ring is used to fix the sensor to the requested deepness.

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Relative Humidity

At Changri Nup station a DMA 570 thermohygrometer was installed in 2010. Temperature sensitive element is a thermoresistance Pt100 type while the humidity sensitive element is a capacitive plate. The sensitive elements are protected from incident solar radiation by a double radiation shield. Sensors for temperature and relative humidity measurements with radiation shield for meteorological uses. Sensors are equipped with a microprocessor.

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Total precipitation

At the AWS Kala Patthar station the DQA030 rain gauge is manufactured by LSI-Lastem equipped with a siphon placed on the cone's nozzle; it has two functions: during light rain the drizzle falls on the bascule without moving it and therefore evaporates without being measured; during heavy rain, it regulates the flow into the bascule permitting all the water to fall inside. LSI-LASTEM rain gauges have stainless steel housing whereas the cone has been designed to avoid the drops splash phenomena and to allow water droplets to dribble down inside even in case of very light rain. The rain gauge can be placed either directly on the ground by means of the DYA042 base plate or mounted on the top or the side of 50 mm diameter. For sites with sub-zero temperatures, the thermostatic heated models ensure the complete melting of snow, even at extreme temperature, whereas minimizing losse of evaporation; these models are insulated to reduce heat dispersion.

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Incoming longwave radiation

Both in 2008 and in 2011 expedition a CM6B Kipp&Zonen radiometer was installed at South Col. The radiometer measures the energy balance between incoming short-wave and long-wave IR radiation versus surface-reflected short-wave and outgoing long-wave IR radiation.

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wind direction

In the framework of Ev-K2-CNR / SHARE (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment) project the first permanent Automatic Weather Station (AWS) has been installed in Uganda, on July 18, 2006 in the western part of the Stanley Plateau, the biggest Rwenzori glacial mass. The Project was carried out during the celebration of Mt. Ruwenzori first ascent by Duke of Abruzzi in 1906 . This station has the same technical characteristics of the Ev-K2- CNR networks located in the high altitude regions of Himalaya and Karakorum. The station records continuously measurements of the seven meteorological standard parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, global solar radiation and total precipitation. The Rwenzori observations will permit to study physical and dynamical processes at Africa high elevations in the framework of SHARE and GEWEX-CEOP HE programs to improve our understanding of variability and change in hydrological and energy cycles and their role in the climate system.

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Atmospheric pressure

At Urdukas Station, a CX115P was installed. This sensor is manufactured by Lsi-Lastem (Italy company).Barometers are sensors for measuring atmospheric pressure. The CX115P models is destined for applications with connections to measurement systems (recorders, data loggers, etc.) that accept analog signals; instead, the CX111P model is prevalently destined for use with LASTEM’s BabucABC data loggers.

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Atmospheric pressure

The CX115p barometer take hourly measurements of atmospheric pressure.

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wind speed

At the AWS Pyramid Laboratory Observatory station the CombiSD DNA022 Lsi-Lastem combined wind speed-direction sensor is mounted on a 5m pole. The CombiSD sensor includes, in a single apparatus, the both transducers for measuring wind speed and wind direction.

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Mt. Bianco – Osram (Gigante Glacier, Italy)

The third Italian permanent automatic weather station has been installed on December 17, 2007 on Gigante Glacier ( Mt. Bianco’s group). Data collected by this station permit to improve knowledge both on local micro-meteorological parameters and on periglacial and glacial conditions. Moreover, this station located at 3430 m asl permits to collect data on above glacial thermal conditions and incoming and outcoming energetic fluxes. Data collected by this station can be compared to the AWSs installed on Forni and Dosdè glaciers. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 45° 50' 50" - Longitude: 06° 55' 58"

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