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Pyranometer

At the Lukla station the the CM6B pyranometer, manufactured by Kipp & Zonen is installed. This sensor is a first class pyranometer as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. It is suitable for the measurement of solar irradiance on a plane surface (W/m2). It incorporates a 64-thermocouple sensor, which is rotationally symmetrical, housed under K5 domes. A white screen prevents the body of the pyranometer from heating up. The pyranometer is supplied with a spirit level and screws for accurate levelling.

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Changri Nup Glacier (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. In particular, within the Ev-K2-CNR/SHARE Project on February 2010 an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) has been installed on the debris-free surface of the Changri Nup Glacier (Nepal, Himalayas) at 5,700 m asl. This AWS is acquiring meteorological data and energy fluxes on the glacier surface in order to permit the calculation of the glacier energy balance and the high resolution analysis of glacier albedo. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 58' 54.5" N - Longitude: 86° 45' 53.8" E

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Meteorological parameters

The basic meteorological data are measured and recorded simultaneously by a Autmatic Weather Station. The Meteorological parameters measured are: - air temperature unit[deg C], - Atmospheric pressure[hPa], - Relative humidity[%], - Wind speed[m/s] and direction[deg], - Precipitation[mm].

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Meteorological parameters

The AWS (Automatic Weather Station) RW has been installed, in Uganda, on July 18, 2006 and it is now part of a network of three stations located in the Rwenzori National Park characterized by an alpine highland of glaciers, snowfields and lakes with distinct vegetation zones, several endangered species and the richest mountain flora in Africa other than a very unusual cloud forest (UNEP, WCMC, 2006). This AWS provides continuous measurements of the seven standard meteorological parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, global solar radiation and total precipitation.

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CNR1 net radiometer

The CNR1 is manufactured by Kipp & Zonen for applications requiring research-grade performance. The radiometer measures the energy balance between incoming short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation versus surface-refl ected short-wave and outgoing long-wave infrared radiation. The CNR1 consists of a pyranometer and pyrgeometer pair that faces upward and a complementary pair that faces downward. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers measure short-wave and far infrared radiation, respectively. All four sensors are calibrated to an identical sensitivity coeffi cient. Th e CNR1 also includes an RTD to measure the radiometer’s internal temperature,a 4WPB100 module to interface the RTD with the datalogger, and a heater that can be used to prevent condensation. Technical Characteristics: Sensors: Kipp & Zonen’s CM3 ISO-class, thermopile pyranometer, CG3 pyrgeometer, PT100 RTD Spectral response Pyranometer: 305 to 2800 nm Pyrgeometer: 5000 to 50,000 nm Response Time: 18 seconds Typical Sensitivity Range: 7 to 15 μV W-1 m2 Output Range Pyranometer: 0 to 25 mV Pyrgeometer: ±5 mV Expected Accuracy for Daily Totals: ±10% Directional Error: <25 W m-2 (pyranometer) Heating Resistor: 24 Ohms, 6 W at 12 Vdc Operating Temperature: -40° to 70°C Dimensions Mounting Arm Diameter: 0.625 in. (1.6 cm) Mounting Arm Length: 14.5 in. (37 cm) Radiometer: 9.1 x 3.1 x 6.1 in. (23.2 x 8.0 x 15.6 cm) Weight: 8.8 lbs (4 kg) Datalogger Requirements: Six diff erential or four singleended and two diff erential analog channels CE Compliance: CE compliant under the European Union’s EMC directive

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NCO_P_2006_03_12_aerosol_scattering_coefficient_1h

At the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid, aerosol total and back scattering coefficients at three wavelengths (450, 550 and 700 nm) are derived by an integrating nephelometer (model TSI 3563).

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Kala Patthar (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Kala Patthar AWS was installed on May 2008.

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Wind speed

During the 2011 expedition, a prototype replaces the sensor installed during 2008 expedition. A prototype (LSI-Lastem) to support with other two sensors manufactured by VAISALA: WMT700 and WA15D7B. The WA15 is based on accurate sensors installed on a large crossarm. It is designed for demanding wind measurement applications.

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Sun Photometer

At the end of March 2006 a Cimel CE-318 sunphotometer was installed at The Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P) within the framework of the Aerosol Robotic Network, AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, EvK2-CNR site). It provides a characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties of the air column above the station.

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Pheriche (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Periche station was installed in October 2001. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 53' 43" N - Longitude: 86° 49' 7.5" E

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