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SHARE Lakes - Lake Pyramid Superior (LPS)

"Mountain lakes of high altitude (Himalaya)" in Long Term Ecological Research Network-Italy Location: Lat 27 ° 57'54 "N Long 86 ° 48'40" E; Lake Area (m2): 5.7 103: Average depth(m): unknown; Maximum depth (m): 8.2; Altitude of the lake (m): 5213; Area Region: Himalayas, Khumbu Valley, Mount Everest.

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SHARE Lakes - Lake Pyramid Inferior (LPI)

"Mountain lakes of high altitude (Himalaya)" in Long Term Ecological Research Network-Italy Location: Lat 27 ° 57'45 "N Long 86 ° 48'56" E; Lake Area (m2): 16.7 103: Average Depth (m): unknown; Maximum depth (m): 8.2; Altitude of the lake (m asl): 5067; Region: Himalayas, Khumbu Valley, Mount Everest.,

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Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal: Implementation of a Participatory Modeling Framework

The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented research projects conducted within this framework, thus providing an overview of the current situation in the park regarding solid waste and water quality issues. We found that most of the solid waste generated in the park is composed of organic matter, paper, and minor reused waste that is mainly reused for cattle feeding and manure, while disposal of other nondegradable categories of collected waste (glass, metal, and plastic) is not properly managed. Particularly, burning or disposal in open dumps poses a great hazard to environmental, human, and animal health, as most dump sites situated close to water courses are prone to regular flooding during the rainy season, thereby directly contaminating river water. Pollutants and microbiological contamination in water bodies were found and anthropogenic activities and hazardous practices such as solid waste dump sites, open defecation, and poor conditions of existing septic tanks are suggested as possibly affecting water quality. Collection of these data on solid waste and water quality and compilation of management information on the targeted social-ecological system allowed us to develop consensus-building models to be used as management supporting tools. By implementing such models, we were able to simulate scenarios identifying and evaluating possible management solutions and interventions in the park. This work reveals insights into general dynamics that can support the quest for solutions to waste and water quality management problems in other protected areas and mountain landscapes where traditional livelihood and land use patterns are changing under the influence of a growing population, changing consumption patterns, and international tourism.

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Italy

Italy - Dosdè (2126 m)

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Chemical and biological response of two small lakes in the Khumbu Valley, Himalayas (Nepal) to short-term variability and climatic change as detected by long-term monitoring and paleolimnological methods

The most remote regions of the globe are home of the least disturbed ecosystems, yet they are threatened by air pollution and by climatic change. The Himalayas are one of the most isolated and least explored wilderness areas in the world outside the Polar Regions and it is for this reason that the Tibetan Plateau is often referred to as the Third Pole. Since 1990, an annual limnological survey (including chemistry and biology) has been carried out at two lakes located in the Kumbhu Valley, Nepal, at 5200 and 5400m a.s.l., respectively. Lake water chemistry surveys reveal a persistent increase in the ionic content of the lake water, a trend which appears to be closely linked to increasing temperature. In this study, we also analysed lake sediment cores for historical changes in algal abundance and community composition to evaluate how long-term variations in primary producer communities corresponded to known regional variations in climate systems during the past 3500years. Paleolimnological results support the evidence that the strong variability observed in the chemical data drives the variability in lake production and in the composition of algal assemblages. These variabilities can be related to known features of local climate and the values recorded in the recent years compare well with those recorded during warm periods, such as around 2000 BP, and thus support the idea that this area of the Himalayan Range, influenced by the South Asia monsoon, is closely linked to Northern Hemisphere climate dynamics.

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Global change impacts on mountain lakes

The issue entitled "Global change impacts on mountain lakes” from “Hydrobiologia”.

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High altitude lakes: limnology and paleolimnology

The most remote regions of globe represent some of the least disturbed ecosystems, yet they are threatened by air pollution and by climatic change. The Himalaya is one of the most isolated regions in the world and least explored wildernesses outside the Polar Regions; and it is for this reason that the Tibetan Plateau is often referred to as the ‘Third Pole’. Limnological survey (including chemistry, biology and sediment core studies) of lakes located between ca. 4500 and 5500 m a.s.l. has been performed from 1992 in the Kumbhu Valley, Nepal. Lake water chemical surveys reveal a constant increase of the ionic content of the lake water probably related to glacier retreat. Modern phytoplankton data compared with previous data point to an increasing trend in lake productivity. Zooplankton, benthos and thechamoebians provide useful biogeographical information. Paleolimnological reconstructions show the potential use of these sites in providing proxy data of past climatic changes in high altitude regions. Data collected of persistent organic pollutants show that the studied sites receive input related to long-range transport pollution. The aims and rationale for the future development of the Ev-K2-CNR Limnological Information System is discussed.

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Pakistan - Braldo Valley

The resource describes the field activities for hydrological activities held in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in the area of Braldo Valley. The network of sampling points in this valley is composed by: Brd01 Korophon Brd02 Bardumal Brd03 Paiju camp Brd04 Baltoro Brd05 Paiju bridge Brd06 Golibital Brd07 Askole Brd08 Shigar bridge Brd09 Khoburtse Brd10 Urdukas Brd11 Jola Brd12 Bardumal, Braldo river Brd13 Jula camp Brd14 Shigar restaurant Brd15 Dasso Brd09 Khoburtse Brd16 Liligo Brd17 Biafo bridge Brd19 Lomar Spang, Tistong (tank) Brd20 Tistong (tap1) Brd21 Chukhil, Dassu Brd22 Sarfloss, Dassu Brd23 Glacier before Khoburtse Brd24 Baltoro glacier's right Brd25 Askole (tank)

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Shigar 2012

Survey2012 Date: 20 maggio 2012 Measure System: flow tracker Q (m3/s)75 q (m3/(s km2))0,011 Date::02 giugno 2012 Measure System: flow tracker Q (m3/s)110 q (m3/(s km2))0,016 Date::20 maggio 2012 Measure System: topographic survey

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SHARE Network of Hydrological Observations - Shigar 2011

Survey 2011 Date: 23 aprile 2011 Measure System: stage discharge curve Q (m3/s) 80 q (m3/(s km2)) 0,012 Date: 02 agosto 2011 Measure System:stage discharge curve Q (m3/s) 585 q (m3/(s km2)) 0,085 Date: 23 aprile 2011 Measure System: topographic survey

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