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Changri Nup Glacier (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. In particular, within the Ev-K2-CNR/SHARE Project on February 2010 an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) has been installed on the debris-free surface of the Changri Nup Glacier (Nepal, Himalayas) at 5,700 m asl. This AWS is acquiring meteorological data and energy fluxes on the glacier surface in order to permit the calculation of the glacier energy balance and the high resolution analysis of glacier albedo. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 58' 54.5" N - Longitude: 86° 45' 53.8" E

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Kala Patthar (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Kala Patthar AWS was installed on May 2008, at 5600 m asl. Geographical coordinated: - Latitude: 27° 59' 24" N - Longitude: 86° 49' 48" E

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Pyramid International Laboratory-Observatory (Lobuche, Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

The laboratory was installed and became operational in September 1990. Not only did the Pyramid soon become a fundamental scientific outpost for researchers and technicians, but it also grew to be known as a point of reference for local populations and tourists who could take advantage of the advanced telecommunications systems available there to send urgent messages to Kathmandu or abroad. The Pyramid International Laboratory - Observatory was officially inaugurated in October or 1990, by the Prime Minister of Nepal, a RONAST officer, the Italian Ambassador in Kathmandu, Agostino Da Polenza and the incredible Ardito Desio, who, at the age of 93, would not miss the historic occasion, making the trip personally to the Pyramid's 5,050 meters a.s.l. The facility is operated by the Ev-K2-CNR and the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology. Their partnership has given rise to 520 scientific missions with the participation of 220 researchers and 143 different international scientific institutions. The independent lodge is made in the style of Nepalese lodge architecture and can host up to 20 researchers, technicians and logistics staff. In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Station (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid Laboratory - Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. On 2004, the Pyramid AWS has been implemented to include sensors for the determination of soil parameters (temperature, water content, thermal flux), snow level and shortwave/longwave albedo. Geographical coordinates: Latitude: 27° 57' 32" N Longitude: 86° 48' 46" E

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CNR1 net radiometer

The CNR1 is manufactured by Kipp & Zonen for applications requiring research-grade performance. The radiometer measures the energy balance between incoming short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation versus surface-refl ected short-wave and outgoing long-wave infrared radiation. The CNR1 consists of a pyranometer and pyrgeometer pair that faces upward and a complementary pair that faces downward. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers measure short-wave and far infrared radiation, respectively. All four sensors are calibrated to an identical sensitivity coeffi cient. Th e CNR1 also includes an RTD to measure the radiometer’s internal temperature,a 4WPB100 module to interface the RTD with the datalogger, and a heater that can be used to prevent condensation. Technical Characteristics: Sensors: Kipp & Zonen’s CM3 ISO-class, thermopile pyranometer, CG3 pyrgeometer, PT100 RTD Spectral response Pyranometer: 305 to 2800 nm Pyrgeometer: 5000 to 50,000 nm Response Time: 18 seconds Typical Sensitivity Range: 7 to 15 μV W-1 m2 Output Range Pyranometer: 0 to 25 mV Pyrgeometer: ±5 mV Expected Accuracy for Daily Totals: ±10% Directional Error: <25 W m-2 (pyranometer) Heating Resistor: 24 Ohms, 6 W at 12 Vdc Operating Temperature: -40° to 70°C Dimensions Mounting Arm Diameter: 0.625 in. (1.6 cm) Mounting Arm Length: 14.5 in. (37 cm) Radiometer: 9.1 x 3.1 x 6.1 in. (23.2 x 8.0 x 15.6 cm) Weight: 8.8 lbs (4 kg) Datalogger Requirements: Six diff erential or four singleended and two diff erential analog channels CE Compliance: CE compliant under the European Union’s EMC directive

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Mt. Everest, South Col (Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Station (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid Laboratory - Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. After a test period during summer 2008, the South Col AWS station has been re-installed on May 2011. The South Col station is equipped with technologically-advanced sensors for measuring temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure and solar radiation. Support, energy and data transmission systems are optimized for functioning in adverse weather conditions. South Col AWS observations can provide useful information for investigating: (i) the variability of the subtropical jet stream analysis, (ii) the summer monsoon onset and decay, (iii) the stratospheric intrusion events, (iv) the occurrence of severe weather conditions on Mt. Everest. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 58' N - Longitude: 86° 56' E

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Lukla (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Lukla station was installed on September 2002. On 2004, the AWS has been implemented to include sensors for the determination of soil parameters (temperature, water content, thermal flux), snow level and shortwave/longwave albedo. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 41' 48" N - Longitude: 86° 43' 17" E

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Urdukas (Baltoro Glacier, Baltistan - Pakistan)

The Baltoro Glacier, 62 km long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions. It is located in Baltistan, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, and runs through part of the Karakoram mountain range. In the middle of the Baltoro glacier there is the campsite of Urdukas located on the trek way to Concordia. This automatic weather station was installed, in June 17, 2004 on the Baltoro Glacier, more precisely on a moraine ridge close to the left glacier margin at 3926 m asl. Geographical coordinates: Latitude: 35° 43' 41" N Longitude: 76° 17' 10" E Elevation: 3926 m a.s.l.

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Mt. Rwenzori (Elena Glacier, Uganda)

The Rwenzori Mountains (called also “Mountains of the Moon”), with heights of up to 5,109 m asl., are located in the central Africa, on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, in the Ugandan National Park an UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the Rwenzori Range some of the main peaks are covered with permanent snow and glacier, while the lower slopes are covered with dense forest. Besides there are several massifs such as Point Margherita, the third highest African summit after, Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya. The first AWS (Automatic Weather Station) RW was installed, in Uganda, in the western part of the Stanley Plateau, on July 18, 2006. This station worked in continuous from 2006 to 2009. In 2009 the station interruppted its work due to difficult environmental conditions, and in 2013 this station was replaced with a new one. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 0° 22' 34.55" N - Longitude: 29° 52' 43.24" E - Elevation: 4.750 m a.s.l.

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Namche (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. In 2004 the station close to the Pyramid and Lukla station have been implemented to include sensors for the determination of soil parameters (temperature, water content, thermal flux), snow level and four components of radiation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Namche Bazar station is located at the Peak Head Quarter and was installed on October 27, 2001. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 48' 8.6" N - Lomgitude: 86° 42' 52" E

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Pheriche (Khumbu Valley, Himalaya - Nepal)

In the Khumbu Valley, located in the central part of the Himalayan range and including the area of Sagarmatha National Park, a network of 7 Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) has been installed since 1994. These weather stations are located at different altitudes: Lukla (2,660 m a.s.l), Namche (3,570 m a.s.l), Periche (4,260 m a.s.l), Lobuche (5,050 m a.s.l) near the Pyramid - Laboratory Observatory, Kala Patthar (5,600 m a.s.l), Changri Nup Glacier (5,700 m a.s.l) and Mt. Everest - South Col (8.000 m a.s.l). The network mainly takes measurements of 7 standards parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global radiation and total precipitation. Meteo-climatic observations in this area are very important to better understand the environmental changes that are affecting the ecosystem, helping the scientific community to improve the prediction of this environmental phenomena’s evolution and modification. The Periche station was installed in October 2001. Geographical coordinates: - Latitude: 27° 53' 43" N - Longitude: 86° 49' 7.5" E

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